The Palestinian resistance began its actions on the ground following the decision of the Arab Higher Committee to declare November 29, 1947, a day of mourning. They urged Palestinians to continue the boycott and to strike for three days on December 2nd, 3rd, and 4th. The scarcity of weapons led to increased prices as every Arab in Palestine rushed to acquire a piece of weaponry to defend their threatened homeland.

The revolution of spirits peaked during the three-day strike. Jewish celebrations following the partition decision triggered emotions. In Haifa, neighborhoods connecting Jaffa to Tel Aviv were subjected to extensive destructive operations. This strike affected all aspects of life in cities and villages.

The First Battle of Kastel

On April 3, 1948, a group from the Palmach (The Palmach, an acronym for Plugot Ma'hatz (Strike Companies), were the elite fighting force of the Haganah, the underground army of the Jewish community in Mandatory Palestine during the period of British rule. Established in 1941, the Palmach played a crucial role in the establishment of the state of Israel and left a lasting legacy on Israeli society.) consisting of an armored unit, an engineering battalion, and around 500 fighters from the Haganah, launched a surprise attack on this village aiming to break the imposed siege. Their goal was to secure the supply route for around a hundred thousand Jews in West Jerusalem and the surrounding settlements. The village was not fortified.

The fall of Qastal into Jewish hands incited Arab resistance fighters, and the Jerusalem area command decided to attack the village. Around 300 fighters gathered and initiated their battle on the morning of April 4, 1948. The conflict lasted for three days, during which significant victories were achieved and heavy losses were inflicted upon the Jewish forces. However, the military balance ultimately favored the Jewish militias, and the village fell on the sixth of the same month.

The Second Battle of Kastel

On April 7, 1948, Commander Abdel Qader al-Husseini led a force of fighters to reclaim the village of Al-Qastal. After intense fighting, Abdel Qader al-Husseini's men managed to surround the village. Some of them launched an attack on the armed Jewish gangs entrenched in the village, but due to the disparity in equipment and ammunition, the fighters' attempts failed.

Abdel Qader al-Husseini himself then led another attack. He and his men engaged in a fierce battle, showing exceptional bravery. However, their weapons quickly ran out, while the military strength of the Jewish gangs was reinforced with supplies. They encircled Abdel Qader and his men tightly, and the news spread. Volunteers and freedom fighters rushed to their aid, numbering around 500, and surrounded Al-Qastal from all directions.

On April 9, 1948, Abdel Qader and his companions fought a fierce battle, successfully driving the Jews out of Al-Qastal. However, he was martyred during the battle. After his martyrdom, many fighters left the village. Exploiting these circumstances, the Jews returned, reoccupied the village, destroyed its houses, fortifications, and mosque. Thus, the village fell for the second time.

The fighting between Arabs and Jews in Tiberias continued from December 1947 until February. However, on March 14, 1948, the battles ceased following the announcement of a truce between the two sides. Nonetheless, the Jews violated the truce a month later. On April 16, the Haganah commenced its attack on Tiberias. The British military intervened this time, declaring another three-day truce. On the third day, the British officer in charge of the area convinced the Arab defenders to leave Tiberias, citing an inability to protect them from Zionist gang attacks. The British military used transportation means to evacuate all Arab inhabitants from the city.

Fighting erupted in Haifa immediately after the partition decision. It was intense and extended beyond Haifa, reaching Acre and neighboring villages. A battle occurred on the road between Haifa and Acre when Zionist gang members intercepted an Arab convoy carrying supplies.

On April 22, 1948, Haifa fell to the Jews due to the collaboration of the British army with the Zionist gangs. The British confiscated most of the ammunition and weapons from Arab fighters, which the Haganah exploited, launching an attack on the city.

The major assault on Jaffa began on March 15, 1948, but Arab fighters repelled it. After five days, Jewish gangs launched a stronger attack on the Abu Kebir area, adjacent to Jaffa, which Arabs also countered. However, repeated attacks occurred on March 22nd and 23rd of the same month.

These repeated attacks on Jaffa and its suburbs terrified the city's residents. The Arab National Committee in Jaffa sought help from the Military Committee in Damascus. Consequently, on March 26th, the Qadisiyah Battalion was sent to Jaffa and stationed in the Manshiyya and al-Bassa neighborhoods. On April 24th, Zionist gangs attacked the Manshiyya district and bombarded the entire city with mortars and rockets the next day. The assault continued until April 28th.

Meanwhile, Fawzi al-Qawuqji sent a detachment of the Army of Salvation led by Captain Michel Issa to support the resistance. However, Issa found that Captain Najm al-Din, leader of the Qadisiyah Battalion stationed at strategic positions, vacated these positions due to a disagreement with al-Qawuqji. The Jews occupied Manshiyya and Tel al-Rish without casualties. On the same day, Salama, al-Abassiya, and Beit Dajan in Jaffa's jurisdiction fell to the Jews, causing panic among the people. Issa and his men, along with some members of the National Committee, fled the besieged city on May 5th, intensifying fear as residents watched Arab forces depart from Jaffa. Chaos reigned as thousands evacuated their homes in search of safety.

Hay El-Katmooun Neighborhood Battle

The Arab neighborhood of Al-Qatamon had been a target for Jewish attacks since the UN adopted the partition resolution due to its strategic location. The city shook when the Samir Amis Hotel was bombed on January 15, 1948, resulting in the burial of 22 Arabs under the debris, along with the destruction of three houses.

The Zionist gangs launched their largest attack on Al-Qatamon on April 27. The Orthodox Church of Saint Romanos was the first place to fall into the hands of the Jews. Ibrahim Abu Daya, responsible for defending Al-Qatamon, realized the magnitude of the attacking forces and called for help. A detachment from the Army of Salvation and fifty Jihad fighters responded. However, despite these reinforcements, they couldn't withstand the Jewish attacks with their modern weaponry and gear. By May 1, Abu Daya and a few surviving militants were compelled to leave, leaving the residents fearing the massacres perpetrated by the Zionists. Consequently, the neighborhood fell under the control of the Zionist gangs.

On May 14, the Sixth Battalion of the Army of Salvation withdrew from Jerusalem to Jericho. Their task was to guard Palestinian convoys on their trips to Bethlehem, Hebron, and Ramallah. The decision to depart was made by Glubb Pasha.

Beisan is a border city located a few miles from the Sea of Galilee and four kilometers from the Syrian border. Its military situation was weak after Fawzi al-Qawuqji withdrew on April 25 from the HaYimik colony.

On May 12, Jewish forces from surrounding colonies gathered and attacked the small city defended by no more than two hundred individuals, mostly locals. They occupied the city three days before the scheduled entry of Arab armies into Palestine.

The battles in Safed and its surroundings continued like all cities in Palestine and its villages. The total Arab arms, from the start of the fighting until its end, including what the Damascus Committee sent, didn't exceed 400 rifles, some French and some English. Adbi Al-Shishakli was the leader of the sector that included Safed. The British withdrew from Safed, the historical city that housed approximately 12,500 inhabitants. On April 16, 1948, Arab forces entered parts of the city, occupying many areas with around 600 fighters, including nearly 470 Palestinians and 130 from the Salvation Army.

Before the battle for Safed, Jews managed to occupy two Arab villages, Ein Zeitun and Beirya, isolating Safed from critical villages. While the fighting between the two sides continued without interruption, on May 5 and 6, the Jews received military reinforcements carried by 172 military vehicles, boosting the morale of Arab fighters. Despite the Safed residents holding their ground, and Al-Shishakli attacking Jewish positions with his cannons, a group of Iraqis joined them and contributed significantly to breaking the Jewish neighborhood. The Jews rallied their forces and attacked Safed's positions in three waves. On May 8, the Jews used well-crafted rocket launchers alongside mortar bombs. The Jewish offensive broke in front of the steadfastness of the defending Arabs. However, the Arab ammunition shortage, a recurring issue, began to worsen and diminish.

The Jewish writer, Maier Fischer, stated that the Arabs resumed cannon fire on May 9 and 10. This time, it was more lethal and precise, spreading death and destruction wherever their shells fell. Safed was on the brink of falling into Arab hands if it weren't for significant reinforcements from the Palmach forces. These forces were armed with numerous and abundant weapons, including quite a number of Fiat cannons. The weather was rainy, and the two sides clashed everywhere, especially at the Police Building, room after room, using white weapons when the cannons were silenced and the Arab ammunition ran out. However, according to the balance of power, Safed fell on May 12 into the hands of the Jewish gangs after 100 Palestinians were martyred, and 850 Jews were killed.

Kfar Etzion was the largest of four Jewish colonies situated midway between Jerusalem and Hebron, heavily fortified. On May 6, 1948, a unit of the Arab army was en route to Hebron, accompanied by a number of cars, when mortar shells from Deir al-Sharaf, a nearby village occupied by Jews, fell on them. One soldier was killed, and several others were wounded. A battle erupted, compelling the officer in charge of the unit to request assistance from Jerusalem. When aid arrived, the fighting intensified, but suddenly, the Jews ceased firing, allowing the military convoy to resume its journey.

The following day, the Arab army, reinforced by 500 fighters, attacked Deir al-Sharaf and occupied it. Those remaining Jews fled to Kfar Etzion, and the Arab army continued its march towards Jerusalem after leaving a few fighters to guard the monastery. Exploiting this, the Jews attacked the monastery and managed to recapture it the next day.

On May 12, the Arab army attacked the colony with hundreds of Palestinian fighters. After several hours, the battle escalated, prompting the officer leading the operation to request assistance. Glubb Pasha ordered Captain Abdullah al-Tel to take charge. Al-Tel positioned himself at the head of the well-equipped armored unit and instructed a hundred of his men to advance to remove the barbed wire. When he began shelling, the colony raised the white flag. As the soldiers approached, the Haganah treacherously opened fire, killing 12 and injuring 30 soldiers. They then launched a second attack. Hundreds of Palestinian fighters rushed into the colony, eventually occupying it after most armed Jews were killed.

The Palestinians managed to hold onto the coastal city of Acre and its surrounding villages throughout the bloody conflict with the Jews from November to May 1948.

When the Yarmouk Brigade, led by Adib al-Shishakli, arrived in late January, there were only thirty fighters left to support the city's inhabitants. The city's people were a thorn in the side of the Jews, ambushing their cars and confronting their fighters.

Acre managed to maintain its Arab identity until Haifa fell to the Jews. After this, an influx of refugees came in, and Jewish combat units freed themselves up and focused their fire on the city. The people of Acre, along with refugees from Haifa, continued their fight. However, the Yarmouk Brigade's leader sought help from the Damascus Committee in vain. On May 11, al-Shishakli decided to withdraw with his army. The people of Acre were left to fight alone after hopes for assistance from the Damascus Committee and a delegation to King Abdullah in Amman, Jordan, were dashed.

Bloody battles took place at Napoleon Hill. Many of Acre's youths who attempted to stop the Jewish advance were martyred. A fierce battle occurred on the other side of the city where all defenders from that area were martyred. The situation remained dangerously unstable.

On May 15, while the people of Acre awaited the arrival of seven Arab armies, they engaged in fierce fighting with the Jews that lasted day and night. Through this, they managed to seize the railway station from the Jews and expelled them from the Department of Affairs building. They engaged in a bloody clash near the private cinema building, resulting in the killing of 60 members of Jewish gangs. However, the Arab defenders couldn't hold out for long. By the next morning, they discovered their ammunition was almost depleted, and the Arab armies had not yet reached Acre.

Adding to the plight, the Zionists spread typhoid fever in the water, leading to the spread of this dangerous disease. The city was filled with patients seeking treatment and healthy individuals requesting vaccinations. Moreover, there was no clean water for drinking or usage.

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