Long before the emergence of Islam in the 7th century, there was continuous interaction between Christians in Palestine and the Arab population, with many Arabs converting to Christianity.

In 637 CE, the Arabs seized Jerusalem from the Byzantines. Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab expressed his respect for the city by personally requesting its surrender. He treated its inhabitants with remarkable compassion and fairness, issuing a document of protection known later as the "Umarian Covenant." Palestine received honor and respect from the Umayyads, for whom Damascus was the capital. The fifth Umayyad Caliph, Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, constructed the magnificent mosque known as the Dome of the Rock. During the Abbasid period, the early caliphs of this era showed great interest in Palestine and Jerusalem.

It is believed that the Christians in Jerusalem requested Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab, during negotiations for the city's surrender, to include a clause in his covenant banning Jews from residing in Jerusalem. However, subsequent caliphs deviated from the treaty's terms concerning Jews and gradually allowed their residence in the city. The first mention of a Jewish temple in Jerusalem dates back to 1047 CE, as mentioned in the writings of Nasir-i Khusraw.

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